Forum: African Astronomical Society
Discussion around the establishment of an African Astronomical SocietyBack to Forum List >> Back to Topic List
Thanks for the Skype conference
Posted Friday, 24 September 2010 By Bosco Oruru
It's a great and good beginning. Once in a while we need this skype get-together to have Africa at the same footing. The discussion forum looks like gonna be nice even after the AfAS is established. Hope for the best. Regards, Bosco.
origin of milkyway
Posted Wednesday, 13 February 2019 By Arunprasad

In the universe light and darkness is present.
Light is passed through a prism it splits into seven colors [VIBGYOR] [Ref.1].
In the midpoint of milky way a shell[REF.2] called hydrogen ion shell is present.
Shell is like a ball. At present there is nothing inside the shell.
Before the galaxy is beginning liquid hydrogen liquid is present inside the shell.
Shell open at a point. Squeeze hydrogen liquid into red hydrogen ions gases.
Like prism experiment several elements are formed by nuclear fusion[ref.5] of hydrogen ions. Several elements [Ref.3] having the colors are formed.
Every stars, planet have individual hydrogen gas ion for rotation.
From the shell to the disc time is constant. After that time start in four arms.
Hydrogen ion disc – constant [static].
Stars, planets, black hole – rotation [dynamic].
Milky Way[Ref.4] is formed from milky white liquid it is called as Milky Way.
“Without proton and electron, nuclei can exist. But without nuclei no existence of proton and electron”
“Without four arms of milky way existence of hydrogen ion disc. But without nuclei hydrogen ion disc no existence of four arms of Milky Way”.

REFERENCE.1 - Colors of light VIBGYOR is referred from discover science by Scott, foresman page 153.
REFERENCE.2 – shell is referred from “THE WORLD OF SCIENCE” the chapter “UNIVERSE”.
REFERENCE.3 – Elements is referred from “beginning science chemistry by Richard hart” page 36.
REFERNCE.4 - Milky Way galaxy is referred from “Merrill science” page 194
REFERENCE.5 - Nuclear fusion is referred from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Welcome to the discussion on the African Astronomical Society
Posted Friday, 24 September 2010 By kg
Modified: Friday, 24 September 2010
This is a very simple discussion forum set up to facilitate the conversation.

In order to post a message, simply register your username above and login. Click on "Back to Topic List" to view the different threads of conversation and either reply to an existing message or start a new topic.

Everyone can view messages but in order to post you need to log in. This is simply to prevent spam and the like
History of discussion
Posted Friday, 24 September 2010 By kg
Modified: Friday, 24 September 2010
In this thread is the full history of the comments thus far...
Continuing the discussion...
Posted Friday, 24 September 2010 By kg
Greetings everyone.
Let's continue the discussion on this forum.

At 16:00 UT tonight there will be a Skype conference call to discuss in person. We will endeavour to record the whole conversation and post it on this website. However, those who cannot make it for the Skype conference are welcome to post your thoughts here.

Summary and Recording of Skype Conference
Posted Friday, 24 September 2010 By kevin
Modified: Friday, 24 September 2010
Greetings all and thanks to those who joined the skypecon. A brief summary is given below. There was a small software error which caused a short break in the recording but the majority of the conversation was captured. The MP3 files and text exchanged during the skypecon are available at the following links:

First 35 minutes:
Last 33 minutes:
Text exchanged:


Attended by:
Jarita Holbrook (US)
Thebe Medupe (SA)
Bonaventure Okere (Nigeria)
Pius Okeke (Nigeria)
Bosco Oruru (Uganda)
Charles McGruder (US)
Claude Carignan (Canada; Burkina Faso)
Ed Guinan (US; international)
Ernst van Groningen (Sweden; international)
Johnson Urama (Nigeria)
Katrien Kolenberg (Austria; Senegal)
Lawrance Norris (US)
Omar Fikry (Egypt)
Pheneas Nkundabakura (Rwanda)
Solohery Randriamampandry (Madagascar)
Zara Randriamanakoto (Madagascar)
Abiy Tekola (Ethiopia)
Kevin Govender (SA)

In brief:
- Prof Okeke started by giving a brief background to the idea of AfAS and how it came about - basically was conceived during the launch of the African Physical Society in Dakar in January 2010.
- It was decided that the details of the legalisation process should be left to later. The concept of the society needed to first be agreed upon.
- Two very strong opposing views were clear. One was that a continental body should arise naturally following the establishment of regional bodies first (bottom up approach that would involve everyone from the outset). The other was that a continental body should first be formed and that it would assist regional bodies to form (shouldn't wait for regional bodies which could take time or not materialise).
- After discussions it was generally agreed that an African Astronomical Society should in fact be formed in the long term as it would benefit the continent. Only the path to getting there was contentious - some felt it should be launched at the Ouagadougou conference in December, others felt that was too soon and could result in failure if rushed.
- It was generally agreed that a continental body would help to raise funds. However, it needed to be a formal, registered organisation in order to raise funds.
- Some felt launching an AfAS at the Ouagadougou conference would not be representative of all of Africa since it was a science conference in a specific field. Suggestion was made to consider more general conference such as MEARIM II in 2011.
- An offer was made for a face to face discussion meeting in Egypt.
- Final compromise on the way forward which everyone agreed upon was that a "Working Group towards the establishment of AfAS" be launched at the Ouagadougou conference - this group should comprise representatives from as many existing societies/astronomy communities as possible. The group would be tasked with carrying out sufficient consultation and investigation into the legalisation of AfAS. This group should come up with a proposal for the official launch of AfAS at a later time (not necessarily MEARIM but also not necessarily astronomy - could be launched at an African Union meeting for example).
- Discussions should continue on the discussion forum set up at
AfAS Additional Comments
Posted Saturday, 25 September 2010 By kevin
Modified: Saturday, 25 September 2010
copied from an email to me...

Dear Kevin,

I am looking a good discussion on futur establishment of AfAS . One of the very important points raised during discussion is estabilishemnt of all African country representative committe in order to work By-law and Working rule. In order to develop AfAS laws, working rules and others each African country should deligate his own representatives legally and the committee should take legally permission from AU. Unless it will be difficult to raise fund and to coordinate at contenital level.

Initial call for comments
Posted Friday, 24 September 2010 By kg
Greetings all
There have been a number of discussions going on in various circles about the formation of the African Astronomical Society (AfAS), which has thus far been driven by Prof Pius Okeke and his team at the Centre for Basic Space Sciences (CBSS) in Nigeria. Some of the discussions have been very positive whilst others were less so. This email is to try to consolidate these discussions and bring everyone onto the same page. If there are suggestions or concerns, we should address them together so that at the end of the day all of us involved in developing astronomy in Africa speak with one voice.

At the outset we should acknowledge the many efforts made thus far by Prof. Okeke and his team in growing astronomy in Africa. Acknowledgement must also be made to the many individuals in East Africa who have been doing great things for astronomy - as well as others all over the continent - there are far too many people to name but it's important for everyone on this list to realise that astronomy is steadily gaining momentum in various ways - and your updates of your development activities will always be welcome on this list. Together we will build astronomy in Africa.

I now welcome your comments on the formation of the African Astronomical Society (AfAS). All the relevant information about the society is contained in the discussion White Paper kindly prepared by Prof Okeke which I copy below. Note that this email list (africalist) is now fairly large and in order to streamline the discussions and reduce the number of emails exchanged I suggest you send your comments to me by email and I can then send out one consolidated email to the list.

We would then like to host a Skype conference where discussions arising from the comments can be addressed through real-time conversation. The proposed date and time for the Skype conference is Friday 24th September 2010 at 16:00 UT. Skype user "kevindran" will be hosting the conference - you simply log onto Skype and dial the user "kevindran".

I encourage everyone to come on board and have your say so that we can all decide together on the way forward. The development of astronomy in Africa will not be as effective as it could be if we do not speak with one united voice.

I look forward to receiving your input as soon as possible but ideally before the Skype conference a week from now.





In Support of

An Act to Establish the African Astronomical Society


In seeking a Charter of incorporation, the African Astronomical Society (AfAS) wishes to strengthen the effectiveness of its resolve and commitment to the growth, acquisition and dissemination of astronomical knowledge, and to facilitate the use of astronomy in the solution of problems of national/international interest.

In this paper, in the effort to address the need and appropriateness of a Charter for AfAS, attention will be drawn to some aspects of the development, growth, significance and contributions of astronomical societies, as learned societies. The paper will also consider, in particular, the operations/programmes, its relevance and prospects with regard to national development, as well as its contributions to national and international astronomy.



Research and development activities are universally acknowledged as integral aspects of any process for the production of new systems or for the upgrading or improvement of existing ones, or for achieving optimization with regard to their performance. Also, astronomical and technological research and development activities play a critical role with regard to the sustainability of industrial effort, especially given the overwhelming importance of engineering and technology as drivers of industry.

In this regard, a typical research and development (i.e. R&D) activity is essentially, an engagement for the systematic investigation into and study of materials, sources, etc with a view to establishing facts and hence reaching new conclusions. Alternatively, it may be considered as an exercise for the discovery of new facts or the collation of existing data or information, etc, through the scientific study of a subject or by a process of critical investigation or procedures.

This is particularly true of the vast terrain of astronomy and technology in which tremendous advances with a multitude of discoveries, inventions and innovations, along with associated applications, have brought manifest advantages and improvements to human existence.

Thus, at the launch meeting of African Physical Society (AfPS) that was held at Dakar Senegal from January 11 – 16, 2010, it was observed that African Astronomers have not been moving forward in line with other astronomers from other countries. Hence it was suggested and agreed that one way to get African astronomers together as a body. The formation of such a body will help to initiate collaboration with Astronomers from other countries, discuss and solve astronomical problems, strengthen astronomy in Africa, develop astronomy in Africa and initiate astronomy outreach programmes.

The above considerations help to explain the emergence and general acceptability of astronomical societies worldwide, over the centuries, as organizational bodies, usually operating with state financial support and approval that coordinate scholarly research and development activities, and standards, in astronomy.

Astronomical societies are formed for a variety of reasons, among the most important of which are the following:

(a) Production and distribution of knowledge, among astronomers/experts, based on facts and logical deductions/predictions.

(b) The patriotic imperatives guiding the efforts of the societies towards contributing to the safety and well-being of the citizenry in their various countries.

(c) The socio-economic implications of astronomy and its applications.

While the interest of the astronomers/experts may be said to be largely propelled by (a) and (b), the attention of governments worldwide has been increasingly attracted by (c), given the acknowledged vital role of astronomy and technology as drivers of industrial processes and hence their strategic importance with regard to the economic advancement of nations.

Indeed, over the years, governments have come to rely increasingly on demonstrably productive linkages with astronomical societies, to the extent that even when such learned societies have been established independently by the expert astronomers, governments have often been keen to grant them recognition and provide support in the national interest. Furthermore, in a large number of countries, governments have generally found it convenient to ensure or facilitate the establishment of these organizations.


Any appraisal of the worldwide development of astronomical societies readily brings into focus their global spread and growing importance. Thus, of the 192 current member states of the United Nations, over 90 of them rely on their national or on regional astronomical societies. Furthermore, the acknowledged relevance of the astronomical societies to national economic development is reflected in the membership of the various world economic groupings. For example, each member of both G7, which is the group of seven of the world’s leading economies (i.e. Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom and United States) and the G8 (which is the G7 together with Russia) relies on the scientific inputs into governance provided by its national astronomy society. This society is reciprocally accorded full recognition and adequate support.

This situation is also reflected in the membership of the newer G20 organization, which is essentially an enlargement of the G8. It consists of the 20 largest economies of the world (i.e. 19 of the world’s largest economies, together with the European Union (EU)). The 19 nations of the organization (which provides a forum for cooperation and consultation on international finance) are: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, United Kingdom and the United States. All these countries have strong astronomical societies, with the sole exception of Saudi Arabia.

It is to be observed that the development and growth of the world system of astronomical societies has been facilitated by the emergence of global science organizations, as distinct from national bodies. Among these organizations is the International Astronomical Union (IAU). With a membership of over 100 astronomical societies worldwide (including national academies/institutions, as well as regional/global groups of astronomers), the IAU, being essentially a global network of astronomical societies, has as its primary objective, the provision of assistance to member astronomical societies to facilitate their mutual cooperation, with a view to proffering astronomy advice on national and critical global issues. The IAU enjoys secure funding for its operations, provided by member nations.

An important aspect of the global development of astronomical societies is their worldwide spread which cuts across national/ regional boundaries, world economic groupings and other interests. Also, as observed from the membership of the United Nations, this spread is not restrained by the disparities in the economic strengths of nations.



An Astronomer is a professional scientist, who does or did research on celestial bodies and /or the universe as a whole.


An AfAS member must be a PhD /MSc holder, actively involved in astronomy research


An AfAS student member must be an undergraduate /or graduate student in the area of astronomy.


A new member shall be recommended by the coordinator of astronomy in his/her country of residence.

On the recommendation, the council shall consider and approve his/her membership.


1. To grow the astronomical profession in Africa to a highly recognized international level.

2. Specifically, the purpose of the African Astronomical Society (AfAS) is to organize and network the community of African research astronomers, to advocate for more resources for astronomy research, to grow the number of African astronomers doing research at African-based telescopes, and to better bridge the African astronomy community to the global astronomical community.


AfAS shall consists of;

a). “The General Assembly”, comprising all members, which is the highest authority of the society,

b). “The Executive council (EXCO)” which shall comprise of the following:

i. The President who shall be the Chair of the EXCO.

ii. The Vice President

iii The Executive Secretary

iv. the Treasurer

v. The Financial Secretary

vi, The National coordinator

It has the responsibility for the administration and general management of the society, and ensures that the objectives of the society are actively pursued.

c). committees of the society.

d). “The Secretariat”, to be maintained by the society and headed by the Executive Secretary.


The Society will be established to promote the growth, acquisition and dissemination of astronomical knowledge, and to facilitate its use in the solution of major problems of national interest. This is achieved by:

(i)Providing advice on specific problems of astronomical

and technological nature, presented to it by the

government and its agencies, as well as by private


(ii) Bringing to the attention of the government and its

agencies problems of national interest that astronomy and technology can help to solve;

(iii) Establishing and maintaining the highest standards of

astronomical endeavour and achievement in Africa.


Towards the achievement of its aims and objectives as

summarized in Section V, The Society will engage in a wide range of programmes, such as:

(a) Publication of journals, discourses, proceedings and


(b) Organization of conferences, seminars, workshops and


(c) Recognition of outstanding contributions to astronomy and

(d) Development of effective linkages with other national and international scientific agencies and astronomical societies including, in particular, engagement on collaborative programmes and projects, involving the promotion of evidence-based research and development activities.

Other major activities, including the following:

(i) Expert Meetings and Workshops: The Society will provide a neutral platform to bring together professionals and to stimulate exchange of ideas on diverse matters of astronomy. The Society serves as astronomy adviser to government and society.

(ii) International Conferences: In line with its vision, mission and objectives, the Society will participate actively in many conferences of major global/regional astronomical societies.

(iii) Scientific Information: The Society will produce reports, annals and other related publications. These serve as credible sources of unbiased astronomical information. The Society will also publish journals, monographs, abstracts, reviews, directories, etc. In particular, it will publish highly reputable and prestigious Proceedings in which astronomers may publish the results of recent research.


. This paper has drawn attention to some aspects of the development, growth, significance and contributions of national astronomical societies, as learned societies. It has also considered, in particular, the emergence and activities of the African Astronomical Society, its relevance and prospects with regard to national development, as well as its contributions to international astronomy.
Posted Friday, 24 September 2010 By sivuyile
Keep up the Great work!!!

This wonderful!! I know the skype conference will take the African astronomy society forward.

Lets make things happen!
Hi Kevin
Posted Monday, 27 September 2010 By Jean Leon IRAGENA
I am very sorry; i missed the discussion last Friday. I hope to participate in other coming discussions if you plan some.

Kind regards

Millsaps College
Jackson City-MS
United States of America
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